Friday, 26 May 2017

How to know which non-clustered indexes are not being used any longer

It is said that indexes are extremely useful to boost the performance of databases, especially indexes on huge tables. I am in agreement with that and I also support the idea of having the right indexes to achieve the best performance if they are created and used properly. Consequently, we have to vigilant of it, indexes may have been created to solve a particular problem in a moment, however, it does not mean that they are going to be useful forever but only for some days or months while data does not change too much. So, I should say as well that indexes are not the be-all and end-all for every business case, and we must always monitor the index usage and should consider the choose of dropping them if we verify they are not being using any longer. Keep in mind, not only could indexes be big and occupy a lot of space, but also impact on write operations negatively. Therefore, we should avoid wasting space, and having done that we can also optimise preventive indexes maintenance time.

This post will show a code to know exactly which non-clustered indexes are being used since the last restart of SQL Server engine. This code also filters out the indexes which are not related to primary keys. As you have seen in the code, we figure out the indexes by checking the value of columns user_seeks, user_scans, and user_lookups, if they are equal to zero then is says to us they were not used until this moment. Please be cautious, before using this code to get the indexes to be deleted, you should make sure that the database engine is not been restarted recently, otherwise, you will delete the wrong indexes and will impact on the performance tremendously. I strongly suggest using this code only if the latest restart of SQL Server has been done three months ago, more and less.

SELECT  i.type_desc,last_user_seek, last_user_scan, last_user_lookup,
        OBJECT_NAME(s.[object_id]) AS [Table Name] ,
        i.name AS [Index Name] ,
        i.index_id ,
        user_updates AS [Total Writes] ,
        user_seeks + user_scans + user_lookups AS [Total Reads] ,
        user_updates - ( user_seeks + user_scans + user_lookups ) AS [Difference]
, 'DROP INDEX ['+ schema_name(o.[schema_id]) +'].['+ OBJECT_NAME(s.[object_id]) +'].[' + i.name  + '];' as Statement_Drop_Index
,i.is_unique, i.is_unique_constraint, i.is_primary_key
FROM    sys.dm_db_index_usage_stats AS s WITH ( NOLOCK )
INNER JOIN sys.indexes AS i WITH ( NOLOCK )
INNER JOIN sys.objects o on o.object_id = i.object_id
    ON s.[object_id] = i.[object_id]  AND i.index_id = s.index_id
WHERE OBJECTPROPERTY(s.[object_id], 'IsUserTable') = 1
      AND s.database_id = DB_ID()     
      AND i.index_id > 1 and i.is_primary_key=0 and i.is_unique=0 and i.is_unique_constraint=0
      AND isnull(user_seeks, 0) + isnull(user_scans, 0) + isnull(user_lookups,0) =0 
ORDER BY  OBJECT_NAME(s.[object_id]), [Difference] DESC, [Total Writes] DESC,[Total Reads] ASC ;

When you execute it, you will also get a column containing the T-SQL code to delete the indexes which have not been used since the latest restart of SQL Server, and then you can execute it to delete them. To sum up, do not get me wrong, I am not against using indexes, on the contrary, I am in favour of using them properly, and if there were indexes that are not being using since a long time ago then they should be deleted. That's all for now. Let me know any remarks you may have. Thanks for reading.

Thursday, 11 May 2017

ObjectExplorer error: Dedicated administrator connections are not supported

Dedicated Administrator Connection (DAC) is a type of privileged connection that we can establish to SQL Server database engine when it does not respond because of too much workload. In this context, DAC is truly useful which allow to diagnosis and solve this sort of problems without restarting the database server any longer. Its is said that it is not possible to establish a DAC connection to the Object Explorer panel via SSMS so that we can get the following error while trying do it in that way:

   Cannot connect to admin:<SQLInstanceFullName>.
   Dedicated administrator connections are not supported. (ObjectExplorer)




It is true up to a point, but it does not mean that SSMS does not support DAC connections. Therefore, the question is:  can we ONLY establish a DAC connection to SQL Server by using SQLCMD? the answer is 'NO'. We also can do it via SSMS while creating a new SQL Query, which means that instead of clicking on 'Object Explorer' and 'Connect', we must click on 'New Query' and finally write 'admin:<Full Name of SQL Instance>' on 'Server Name' text box. That is all, it couldn't have been simpler.



Having done that, we will have a DAC connection ready via SSMS. Let me know any remarks you may have. Thanks for reading. Stay tuned.

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