Friday 28 October 2016

How to monitor database file space usage in SQL Server

Undoubtedly, when it comes to monitoring database file space usage we need a simple way to do it. Fortunately, SQL Server has considerable quantity of DMV and System Functions to allows us to get closely related information about it. Today's post has the intention of providing a practical way of warning us in case the free database file space is less than the threshold of 20%. With this alert in mind, we will be able to make a preventive decision in order to prevent the performance of in-flight transactions from being impacted.

I am coming up with a simple query to achieve that. Firstly, we need to create a physical temporary table 'FileSpace' which will hold related information for each database. Having successfully creating the table, the following step is to execute the adequate logic, in the context of each database user via 'sp_msforeachdb', to collect file space usage which will be reported in the end. I am getting space usage information of each database file by using FILEPROPERTY system function.

The execution of the entire script (including creation of the table) may be automated via a SQL Job in order to send yourself an alert with format HTML by using database mail. Unluckily, this code does not include the logic to send that email but it is not something difficult to complete, therefore, just do it. That is all for now. Let me know any remarks you may have. Thanks for reading.

Here is the whole script.
USE [master]
CREATE TABLE [dbo].[FileSpace](
    [DatabaseName] [nvarchar](128) NULL,
    [FileName] [sysname] NOT NULL,
    Type varchar(10) not null,
    [FileSizeGB] [decimal](10, 2) NULL,
    [SpaceUsedGB] [decimal](10, 1) NULL,
    [SpaceFreeGB] [decimal](10, 1) NULL,
    [SpaceFree%] [decimal](10, 1) NULL,
    Physical_Name varchar(max)
EXEC sp_MSforeachdb '
USE [?]
insert into master.DBO.[FileSpace]([DatabaseName] ,    [FileName] , Type,    [FileSizeGB],    [SpaceUsedGB] ,    [SpaceFreeGB] ,    [SpaceFree%],Physical_Name )
select db_name() DatabaseName, name FileName, Type_Desc ,
cast(size/128.0/1024.0 as decimal(10,2)) SizeGB, 
cast(FILEPROPERTY(name,''SpaceUsed'') /128.0/1024.0  as decimal(10,1)) SpaceUsedGB, 
cast((size - FILEPROPERTY(name,''SpaceUsed'') ) /128.0/1024.0 as decimal(10,1)) SpaceFreeGB, 
cast(((size - FILEPROPERTY(name,''SpaceUsed'') )/(size*1.0)) *100 as decimal(10,1)) [SpaceFree%], physical_name
FROM sys.database_files'

WHERE [SpaceFree%]<=20
HELLO, I'M PERCY REYES! — a book lover, healthy lifestyle lover... I've been working as a senior SQL Server Database Administrator (DBA) for over 20 years; I'm a three-time awarded Microsoft Data Platform MVP. I'm currently doing a PhD in Computer Science (cryptography) at Loughborough University, England — working on cryptographic Boolean functions, algorithmic cryptanalysis, number theory, and other algebraic aspects of cryptography. READ MORE